Data Summarization

  • Basic statistical summarization
    • mean(x): takes the mean of x
    • sd(x): takes the standard deviation of x
    • median(x): takes the median of x
    • quantile(x): displays sample quantities of x. Default is min, IQR, max
    • range(x): displays the range. Same as c(min(x), max(x))
    • sum(x): sum of x
    • all have a na.rm for missing data - discussed later
  • Transformations
    • log - log (base e) transformation
    • log2 - log base 2 transform
    • log10 - log base 10 transform
    • sqrt - square root

Some examples

We can use the jhu_cars to explore different ways of summarizing data. The head command displays the first 6 (default) rows of an object:

library(jhur)
head(jhu_cars)
                car  mpg cyl disp  hp drat    wt  qsec vs am gear carb
1         Mazda RX4 21.0   6  160 110 3.90 2.620 16.46  0  1    4    4
2     Mazda RX4 Wag 21.0   6  160 110 3.90 2.875 17.02  0  1    4    4
3        Datsun 710 22.8   4  108  93 3.85 2.320 18.61  1  1    4    1
4    Hornet 4 Drive 21.4   6  258 110 3.08 3.215 19.44  1  0    3    1
5 Hornet Sportabout 18.7   8  360 175 3.15 3.440 17.02  0  0    3    2
6           Valiant 18.1   6  225 105 2.76 3.460 20.22  1  0    3    1

Statistical summarization

Note - the $ references/selects columns from a data.frame/tibble:

mean(jhu_cars$hp)
[1] 146.6875
quantile(jhu_cars$hp)
   0%   25%   50%   75%  100% 
 52.0  96.5 123.0 180.0 335.0 

Statistical summarization

median(jhu_cars$wt)
[1] 3.325
quantile(jhu_cars$wt, probs = 0.6)
 60% 
3.44 

Statistical summarization

t.test will be covered more in detail later, gives a mean and 95% CI:

t.test(jhu_cars$wt) 
    One Sample t-test

data:  jhu_cars$wt
t = 18.6, df = 31, p-value < 2.2e-16
alternative hypothesis: true mean is not equal to 0
95 percent confidence interval:
 2.864478 3.570022
sample estimates:
mean of x 
  3.21725 
broom::tidy(t.test(jhu_cars$wt))
# A tibble: 1 x 8
  estimate statistic  p.value parameter conf.low conf.high method    alternative
     <dbl>     <dbl>    <dbl>     <dbl>    <dbl>     <dbl> <chr>     <chr>      
1     3.22      18.6 2.26e-18        31     2.86      3.57 One Samp… two.sided  

Statistical summarization

Note that many of these functions have additional inputs regarding missing data, typically requiring the na.rm argument (“remove NAs”).

x = c(1,5,7,NA,4,2, 8,10,45,42)
mean(x)
[1] NA
mean(x, na.rm = TRUE)
[1] 13.77778
quantile(x, na.rm = TRUE)
  0%  25%  50%  75% 100% 
   1    4    7   10   45 

Data Summarization on matrices/data frames

  • Basic statistical summarization
    • rowMeans(x): takes the means of each row of x
    • colMeans(x): takes the means of each column of x
    • rowSums(x): takes the sum of each row of x
    • colSums(x): takes the sum of each column of x
    • summary(x): for data frames, displays the quantile information
  • The matrixStats package has additional row* and col* functions
    • Like rowSds, colQuantiles

Lab Part 1

TB Incidence

Please download the TB incidence data:

http://johnmuschelli.com/intro_to_r/data/tb_incidence.xlsx

Here we will read in a tibble of values from TB incidence:

library(readxl)
# tb <- read_excel("http://johnmuschelli.com/intro_to_r/data/tb_incidence.xlsx")
tb = jhur::read_tb()
colnames(tb)
 [1] "TB incidence, all forms (per 100 000 population per year)"
 [2] "1990"                                                     
 [3] "1991"                                                     
 [4] "1992"                                                     
 [5] "1993"                                                     
 [6] "1994"                                                     
 [7] "1995"                                                     
 [8] "1996"                                                     
 [9] "1997"                                                     
[10] "1998"                                                     
[11] "1999"                                                     
[12] "2000"                                                     
[13] "2001"                                                     
[14] "2002"                                                     
[15] "2003"                                                     
[16] "2004"                                                     
[17] "2005"                                                     
[18] "2006"                                                     
[19] "2007"                                                     

Indicator of TB

We can rename the first column to be the country measured using the rename function in dplyr (we have to use the ` things because there are spaces in the name):

library(dplyr)
tb = tb %>% rename(country = `TB incidence, all forms (per 100 000 population per year)`)

colnames will show us the column names and show that country is renamed:

colnames(tb)
 [1] "country" "1990"    "1991"    "1992"    "1993"    "1994"    "1995"   
 [8] "1996"    "1997"    "1998"    "1999"    "2000"    "2001"    "2002"   
[15] "2003"    "2004"    "2005"    "2006"    "2007"   

Summarize the data: dplyr summarize function

dplyr::summarize will allow you to summarize data. Format is new = SUMMARY. If you don’t set a new name, it will be a messy output:

tb %>% 
  summarize(mean_2006 = mean(`2006`, na.rm = TRUE),
            media_2007 = median(`2007`, na.rm = TRUE),
            median(`2004`, na.rm = TRUE))
# A tibble: 1 x 3
  mean_2006 media_2007 `median(\`2004\`, na.rm = TRUE)`
      <dbl>      <dbl>                            <dbl>
1      135.         53                               56

Column and Row means

colMeans and rowMeans must work on all numeric data. We will subset years before 2000 (starting with 1):

avgs = select(tb, starts_with("1"))
colMeans(avgs, na.rm = TRUE)
    1990     1991     1992     1993     1994     1995     1996     1997 
105.5797 107.6715 108.3140 110.3188 111.9662 114.1981 115.3527 118.8792 
    1998     1999 
121.5169 125.0435 
tb$before_2000_avg = rowMeans(avgs, na.rm = TRUE)
head(tb[, c("country", "before_2000_avg")])
# A tibble: 6 x 2
  country        before_2000_avg
  <chr>                    <dbl>
1 Afghanistan              168  
2 Albania                   26.3
3 Algeria                   41.8
4 American Samoa             8.5
5 Andorra                   28.8
6 Angola                   225. 

Summarize the data: dplyr summarize function

dplyr::summarize will allow you to summarize data. If you would like to summarize all columns, you can use summarize_all and pass in a function (with other arguments):

summarize_all(DATASET, FUNCTION, OTHER_FUNCTION_ARGUMENTS) # how to use
summarize_all(avgs, mean, na.rm = TRUE)
# A tibble: 1 x 10
  `1990` `1991` `1992` `1993` `1994` `1995` `1996` `1997` `1998` `1999`
   <dbl>  <dbl>  <dbl>  <dbl>  <dbl>  <dbl>  <dbl>  <dbl>  <dbl>  <dbl>
1   106.   108.   108.   110.   112.   114.   115.   119.   122.   125.

Summary Function

Using summary can give you rough snapshots of each column, but you would likely use mean, min, max, and quantile when necessary (and number of NAs):

summary(tb)
   country               1990            1991            1992      
 Length:208         Min.   :  0.0   Min.   :  4.0   Min.   :  2.0  
 Class :character   1st Qu.: 27.5   1st Qu.: 27.0   1st Qu.: 27.0  
 Mode  :character   Median : 60.0   Median : 58.0   Median : 56.0  
                    Mean   :105.6   Mean   :107.7   Mean   :108.3  
                    3rd Qu.:165.0   3rd Qu.:171.0   3rd Qu.:171.5  
                    Max.   :585.0   Max.   :594.0   Max.   :606.0  
                    NA's   :1       NA's   :1       NA's   :1      
      1993            1994          1995            1996            1997      
 Min.   :  4.0   Min.   :  0   Min.   :  3.0   Min.   :  0.0   Min.   :  0.0  
 1st Qu.: 27.5   1st Qu.: 26   1st Qu.: 26.5   1st Qu.: 25.5   1st Qu.: 24.5  
 Median : 56.0   Median : 57   Median : 58.0   Median : 60.0   Median : 64.0  
 Mean   :110.3   Mean   :112   Mean   :114.2   Mean   :115.4   Mean   :118.9  
 3rd Qu.:171.0   3rd Qu.:174   3rd Qu.:177.5   3rd Qu.:179.0   3rd Qu.:181.0  
 Max.   :618.0   Max.   :630   Max.   :642.0   Max.   :655.0   Max.   :668.0  
 NA's   :1       NA's   :1     NA's   :1       NA's   :1       NA's   :1      
      1998            1999            2000            2001      
 Min.   :  0.0   Min.   :  0.0   Min.   :  0.0   Min.   :  0.0  
 1st Qu.: 23.5   1st Qu.: 22.5   1st Qu.: 21.5   1st Qu.: 19.0  
 Median : 63.0   Median : 66.0   Median : 60.0   Median : 59.0  
 Mean   :121.5   Mean   :125.0   Mean   :127.8   Mean   :130.7  
 3rd Qu.:188.5   3rd Qu.:192.5   3rd Qu.:191.0   3rd Qu.:189.5  
 Max.   :681.0   Max.   :695.0   Max.   :801.0   Max.   :916.0  
 NA's   :1       NA's   :1       NA's   :1       NA's   :1      
      2002            2003             2004           2005        
 Min.   :  3.0   Min.   :   0.0   Min.   :   0   Min.   :   0.00  
 1st Qu.: 20.5   1st Qu.:  17.5   1st Qu.:  18   1st Qu.:  16.75  
 Median : 60.0   Median :  56.0   Median :  56   Median :  53.50  
 Mean   :136.2   Mean   : 136.2   Mean   : 137   Mean   : 135.67  
 3rd Qu.:195.5   3rd Qu.: 189.0   3rd Qu.: 184   3rd Qu.: 183.75  
 Max.   :994.0   Max.   :1075.0   Max.   :1127   Max.   :1141.00  
 NA's   :1       NA's   :1        NA's   :1                       
      2006              2007        before_2000_avg 
 Min.   :   0.00   Min.   :   0.0   Min.   :  3.50  
 1st Qu.:  16.75   1st Qu.:  15.5   1st Qu.: 26.45  
 Median :  55.50   Median :  53.0   Median : 61.20  
 Mean   : 134.61   Mean   : 133.4   Mean   :113.88  
 3rd Qu.: 185.00   3rd Qu.: 186.5   3rd Qu.:175.20  
 Max.   :1169.00   Max.   :1198.0   Max.   :637.10  
                   NA's   :1        NA's   :1       

Youth Tobacco Survey

Here we will be using the Youth Tobacco Survey data: http://johnmuschelli.com/intro_to_r/data/Youth_Tobacco_Survey_YTS_Data.csv .

yts = jhur::read_yts()
head(yts)
# A tibble: 6 x 31
   YEAR LocationAbbr LocationDesc TopicType TopicDesc MeasureDesc DataSource
  <dbl> <chr>        <chr>        <chr>     <chr>     <chr>       <chr>     
1  2015 AZ           Arizona      Tobacco … Cessatio… Percent of… YTS       
2  2015 AZ           Arizona      Tobacco … Cessatio… Percent of… YTS       
3  2015 AZ           Arizona      Tobacco … Cessatio… Percent of… YTS       
4  2015 AZ           Arizona      Tobacco … Cessatio… Quit Attem… YTS       
5  2015 AZ           Arizona      Tobacco … Cessatio… Quit Attem… YTS       
6  2015 AZ           Arizona      Tobacco … Cessatio… Quit Attem… YTS       
# … with 24 more variables: Response <chr>, Data_Value_Unit <chr>,
#   Data_Value_Type <chr>, Data_Value <dbl>, Data_Value_Footnote_Symbol <chr>,
#   Data_Value_Footnote <chr>, Data_Value_Std_Err <dbl>,
#   Low_Confidence_Limit <dbl>, High_Confidence_Limit <dbl>, Sample_Size <dbl>,
#   Gender <chr>, Race <chr>, Age <chr>, Education <chr>, GeoLocation <chr>,
#   TopicTypeId <chr>, TopicId <chr>, MeasureId <chr>, StratificationID1 <chr>,
#   StratificationID2 <chr>, StratificationID3 <chr>, StratificationID4 <chr>,
#   SubMeasureID <chr>, DisplayOrder <dbl>

Length and unique

unique(x) will return the unique elements of x

head(unique(yts$LocationDesc), 10)
 [1] "Arizona"                  "Connecticut"             
 [3] "Georgia"                  "Hawaii"                  
 [5] "Illinois"                 "Louisiana"               
 [7] "Mississippi"              "Utah"                    
 [9] "Missouri"                 "National (States and DC)"

length will tell you the length of a vector. Combined with unique, tells you the number of unique elements:

length(unique(yts$LocationDesc))
[1] 50

Table

table(x) will return a frequency table of unique elements of x

head(table(yts$LocationDesc))
    Alabama     Arizona    Arkansas  California    Colorado Connecticut 
        378         240         210          96          48         384 

dplyr: count

yts %>% count(LocationDesc)
# A tibble: 50 x 2
   LocationDesc             n
   <chr>                <int>
 1 Alabama                378
 2 Arizona                240
 3 Arkansas               210
 4 California              96
 5 Colorado                48
 6 Connecticut            384
 7 Delaware               312
 8 District of Columbia    48
 9 Florida                 96
10 Georgia                282
# … with 40 more rows

dplyr: count

yts %>% count(LocationDesc, Age)
# A tibble: 50 x 3
   LocationDesc         Age          n
   <chr>                <chr>    <int>
 1 Alabama              All Ages   378
 2 Arizona              All Ages   240
 3 Arkansas             All Ages   210
 4 California           All Ages    96
 5 Colorado             All Ages    48
 6 Connecticut          All Ages   384
 7 Delaware             All Ages   312
 8 District of Columbia All Ages    48
 9 Florida              All Ages    96
10 Georgia              All Ages   282
# … with 40 more rows

Subsetting to specific columns

Let’s just take smoking status measures for all genders in middle school current smoking using filter, and the columns that represent the year, state and percentage using select:

library(dplyr)
sub_yts = filter(yts, MeasureDesc == "Smoking Status",
                 Gender == "Overall", Response == "Current",
                 Education == "Middle School")
sub_yts = select(sub_yts, YEAR, LocationDesc, Data_Value, Data_Value_Unit)
head(sub_yts, 4)
# A tibble: 4 x 4
   YEAR LocationDesc Data_Value Data_Value_Unit
  <dbl> <chr>             <dbl> <chr>          
1  2015 Arizona             3.2 %              
2  2015 Connecticut         0.8 %              
3  2015 Hawaii              3   %              
4  2015 Illinois            2   %              

Perform Operations By Groups: dplyr

group_by allows you group the data set by grouping variables:

sub_yts = group_by(sub_yts, YEAR)
head(sub_yts)
# A tibble: 6 x 4
# Groups:   YEAR [1]
   YEAR LocationDesc Data_Value Data_Value_Unit
  <dbl> <chr>             <dbl> <chr>          
1  2015 Arizona             3.2 %              
2  2015 Connecticut         0.8 %              
3  2015 Hawaii              3   %              
4  2015 Illinois            2   %              
5  2015 Louisiana           5.2 %              
6  2015 Mississippi         4.7 %              
  • doesn’t change the data in any way, but how functions operate on it

Summarize the data

It’s grouped!

sub_yts %>% summarize(year_avg = mean(Data_Value, na.rm = TRUE))
# A tibble: 17 x 2
    YEAR year_avg
   <dbl>    <dbl>
 1  1999    14.6 
 2  2000    12.5 
 3  2001     9.84
 4  2002     9.60
 5  2003     7.49
 6  2004     8.2 
 7  2005     7.27
 8  2006     7.37
 9  2007     6.68
10  2008     5.95
11  2009     5.84
12  2010     5.6 
13  2011     5.15
14  2012     4.72
15  2013     3.76
16  2014     2.93
17  2015     2.86

Using the pipe

Pipe sub_yts into group_by, then pipe that into summarize:

yts_avgs = sub_yts %>% 
  group_by(YEAR) %>% 
  summarize(year_avg = mean(Data_Value, na.rm = TRUE),
            year_median = median(Data_Value, na.rm = TRUE))
head(yts_avgs)
# A tibble: 6 x 3
   YEAR year_avg year_median
  <dbl>    <dbl>       <dbl>
1  1999    14.6        14.4 
2  2000    12.5        12   
3  2001     9.84        9.3 
4  2002     9.60        8.7 
5  2003     7.49        7   
6  2004     8.2         8.55

Ungroup the data

You usually want to perform operations on groups and may want to redefine the groups. The ungroup function will allow you to clear the groups from the data:

sub_yts = ungroup(sub_yts)
sub_yts
# A tibble: 222 x 4
    YEAR LocationDesc   Data_Value Data_Value_Unit
   <dbl> <chr>               <dbl> <chr>          
 1  2015 Arizona               3.2 %              
 2  2015 Connecticut           0.8 %              
 3  2015 Hawaii                3   %              
 4  2015 Illinois              2   %              
 5  2015 Louisiana             5.2 %              
 6  2015 Mississippi           4.7 %              
 7  2015 Missouri              2.4 %              
 8  2015 New Jersey            1.2 %              
 9  2015 North Carolina        2.3 %              
10  2015 North Dakota          3.6 %              
# … with 212 more rows

group_by with mutate - just add data

We can also use mutate to calculate the mean value for each year and add it as a column:

sub_yts %>% 
  group_by(YEAR) %>% 
  mutate(year_avg = mean(Data_Value, na.rm = TRUE)) %>% 
  arrange(LocationDesc, YEAR) # look at year 2000 value
# A tibble: 222 x 5
# Groups:   YEAR [17]
    YEAR LocationDesc Data_Value Data_Value_Unit year_avg
   <dbl> <chr>             <dbl> <chr>              <dbl>
 1  2000 Alabama            19.1 %                  12.5 
 2  2002 Alabama            15.6 %                   9.60
 3  2004 Alabama            13.1 %                   8.2 
 4  2006 Alabama            13   %                   7.37
 5  2008 Alabama             8.7 %                   5.95
 6  2010 Alabama             7   %                   5.6 
 7  2012 Alabama             7.5 %                   4.72
 8  2014 Alabama             6.4 %                   2.93
 9  2000 Arizona            11.4 %                  12.5 
10  2003 Arizona             8.7 %                   7.49
# … with 212 more rows

Counting

Standard statistics can be calculated. There are other functions, such as n() count the number of observations.

sub_yts %>% 
  group_by(YEAR) %>% 
  summarize(n = n(),
            mean = mean(Data_Value, na.rm = TRUE)) %>% 
  head
# A tibble: 6 x 3
   YEAR     n  mean
  <dbl> <int> <dbl>
1  1999    10 14.6 
2  2000    27 12.5 
3  2001    11  9.84
4  2002    23  9.60
5  2003    12  7.49
6  2004    14  8.2 

Lab Part 2

Data Summarization/Visualization: ggplot2

ggplot2 is a package of plotting that is very popular and powerful (using the grammar of graphics). We will use qplot (“quick plot”) for most of the basic examples:

qplot
function (x, y, ..., data, facets = NULL, margins = FALSE, geom = "auto", 
    xlim = c(NA, NA), ylim = c(NA, NA), log = "", main = NULL, 
    xlab = NULL, ylab = NULL, asp = NA, stat = NULL, position = NULL) 
NULL

Basic Plots

Plotting is an important component of exploratory data analysis. We will review some of the more useful and informative plots here. We will go over formatting and making plots look nicer in additional lectures.

Scatterplot

library(ggplot2)
qplot(x = disp, y = mpg, data = jhu_cars)

Histograms

qplot(x = before_2000_avg, data = tb, geom = "histogram")
Warning: Removed 1 rows containing non-finite values (stat_bin).

Plot with a line

qplot(x = YEAR, y = year_avg, data = yts_avgs, geom = "line")

Density

Over all years and states, this is the density of smoking status incidence:

qplot(x = Data_Value, data = sub_yts, geom = "density")

Boxplots

qplot(x = LocationDesc, y = Data_Value, data = sub_yts, geom = "boxplot") 

Boxplots

qplot(x = LocationDesc, y = Data_Value, 
      data = sub_yts, geom = "boxplot") + coord_flip()